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An external statistical review subsequently commissioned by the journal confirmed the error. The authors were asked to retract the article, but they refused. The journal ultimately posted the authors’ response to our letter and a summary of commissioned reviewers’ criticism. An accompanying editorial published3 by the journal stated that “it is each author’s responsibility to make sure that statistical procedures are correctly used and valid for the study submitted”. Essentially everyone at the meeting embraced the basic concept of pre-prints from the beginning, and we spent most of the meeting discussing details about how a pre-print system in biology can and should work, and how to build momentum for pre-print use. These developments go hand in hand with the rise of open access publishing.
In submissions How to streamline post-publication corrections Research teams Tap statistical expertise in the design and analysis of studies from the start. Curate data and computer code so that they can be made easily available (for a registry of public data repositories, see ). Manuscript editors Create protocols to identify papers that need statistical scrutiny and send them to qualified reviewers Address readers’ concerns swiftly. Use formal expressions of concern as an alert that work is under scrutiny — rather than for condemnation.
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Up until that point, I hadn’t appreciated how skewed these data are. You might think that this problem is so obvious that it would already be competently managed by researchers and journals. Repeatedly, academic papers have been published showing that outcome-switching is highly prevalent, and that such switches often lead to more favourable statistically significant results being reported instead. This is despite numerous codes of conduct set up to prevent such switching, https://1investing.in/ most notably the widely respected CONSORT guidelines, which require reporting of all pre-specified outcomes and an explanation for any changes. Almost all major medical journals supposedly endorse these guidelines, and yet we know that undisclosed outcome-switching persists. For one article that we believed contained an invalidating error, our options were to post a comment in an online commenting system or pay a ‘discounted’ submission fee of US$1,716.
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As of this writing, not a whole lot is known, so for now we will have to assume that nobody was put in harm’s way. The size and probability of such potential harm may hypothetically influence the overall assessment of Sci-Hub, but at this point I would tentatively consider such potential negative consequences as minor, compared to the benefits. Part of our ongoing assessment also has to be the discussion of whether the investment in the baby-steps of the last two decades was worth the minuscule returns. Sci-Hub has the potential to encourage and inspire other academics to stand up to the status quo and demand effective reforms, maybe even taking action themselves. Sci-Hub clearly is not how one would design a scholarly infrastructure, but it has been more effective at accomplishing access than anything in the last 20 years.
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At varying levels, many of these proposals are already in operation. But, for the millions of people who die each year from diseases neglected by the current medicine system, the tragedy is not the least bit theoretical. This argument for medicine enclosure presents two important ironies.
- By definition, a reward system based on artificial exclusivity will wall off knowledge from being shared.
- We are a group of researchers working on obesity, nutrition and energetics.
- As a result, the field is being invigorated by initiatives such as study pre-registration and open data.
Though primarily motivated by the research and societal benefits that will accrue from freeing the dissemination of the research literature, open access is also needed to optimise crowd-sifting of the literature by making it accessible to everyone. But the growth of open access is also being held back by the leaden hand of the impact factor. This year has seen several significant policy developments in the US, EU and UK, but we still have a considerable way to go. Now I am not suggesting we abandon peer-review; I retain my faith in the quality control provided by expert assessment of manuscripts before publication, but this should simply be a technical check on the work, not an arbiter of its value. The long tails of barely referenced papers in the citation distributions of all journals — even those of high rank — are evidence enough that pre-publication peer review is an unreliable determinant of ultimate worth.
When governments outside the US refused to block generic manufacturing, the pharmaceutical industry argued, they were indulging acts of piracy. Fortunately, Emilie Marcus, CEO of Cell Press and Editor-in-Chief of Cell, was at the meeting to explain it to us. Her response was, and I’m paraphrasing but I think I’m capturing it correctly, is that they are happy to publish papers initially posted as pre-prints so long as the information in the paper had not already been noticed by people in the field. In other words, it’s ok to post pre-prints so long as nobody noticed the pre-print. That is, they are rather unambiguously not endorsing the point of pre-prints, which is to get your work out to the community more quickly and effectively. It’s not that it surprises me that journals have this kind of hold on people.
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The Tribunal also directed Automotive Research Association of India to place its investigation report by February 4, the next date of hearing. Senior advocate Pinaki Misra, appearing for Volkswagen, told the green panel that there were no such devices in its vehicles and ARAI was already investigating the matter and outcome is awaited. “The whole argument is based on the fact that something which happened in the United States. A bench headed by Justice UD Salvi directed the company to give in writing that it would sell only those vehicles which comply with all emission norms as applicable.
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Among governments and the public alike, medicines continue to be treated as a good quite distinct from consumer items like cell phones or flat-screen TVs. A human right to access essential medicines has found its way into international treaties and national constitutions. A moral claim for universal access to essential medicines has been put forth not only by faith-based organizations and civil society actors, but also by many drug developers themselves.
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In economic terms, this presents the classic “free rider” problem. Their solution was the temporary patent monopoly, which is lucrative enough to incentivize medical research. Finally, there still remains the question as to how Sci-Hub was able to obtain the credentials it uses to free the articles.
Editors are often unable or reluctant to take speedy and appropriate action. For one paper, we obtained raw data deposited online, received institutional approval to reanalyse the data, and submitted a letter to the editor (through the manuscript-submission system) describing a need for correction within two weeks. After nine months, we asked the journal why, at minimum, an expression of concern had not been posted.
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Maybe the other journals that endorse pre-prints are banking on the symbiosis between pre-prints and journals that exists in physics being extended to biomedicine. In questions after his talk Ginsparg said that ~80% of papers published in the arXiv are ultimately published in a peer-reviewed journal. The optimistic answer is that libraries want to support the services journals provide and are willing to pay for them even if they’re not providing access to the literature.
Any information reported needs to be freely available for re-analysis and not in the hands of a company. Google Scholar is a potential solution but it needs to be more open with its data. They already have a journal ranking US Economic Outlook: For 2020 and Beyond which provides a valuable and interesting alternative view to the JIF. This analysis supports the idea that there are different tiers of journal . But the JIF is the bluntest of tools to separate these journals.